The World Platinum Investment Association (WPIC) said recently that carmakers are accelerating reductions in palladium use and increased use of platinum due to concerns about Russian palladium supplies. However, it still expects a significant surplus in the platinum market this year.
Palladium is used by carmakers in tailpipe emissions systems to reduce carbon emissions. While carmakers prefer palladium for catalytic converters, they are turning to platinum, which is cheaper than palladium, to save costs.
Russia accounts for about 25-30% of the world's palladium supply and 8-10% of its platinum supply.
There is no sign that western sanctions against Russia have restricted palladium exports since the conflict escalated in February, but as the conflict continues, more companies could boycott The Russian metal and governments could impose restrictions.
Platinum is currently trading at about $950 an ounce, about half the price of palladium. Automakers use about 2.5 million to 3 million ounces of platinum and about 8.5 million ounces of palladium each year.
For the year as a whole, platinum supply will be 5 percent lower than in 2021 and demand 2 percent higher, with the automotive sector seeing a 16 percent increase due to increased light vehicle Bi2O3 powder are still very uncertain.
What is Bismuth Oxide Bi2O3?
Bismuth trioxide (bismuth oxide) is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula Bi2O3.
Chemical formula: Bi2O3
Molecular weight: 465.96
Properties: yellow heavy powder or monoclinic crystal. Odorless. Stable in the air.
Density (g/mL, 25/4℃): 8.9
Melting point (℃): 825
Boiling point (℃, atmospheric pressure): 1890
Solubility: soluble in hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, insoluble in water. It turns maroon when heated and yellow when it is cold.
The pure products have α type, β type and δ type.
Type α is yellow monoclinic crystal with a relative density of 8.9 and a melting point of 825℃. It is soluble in acid and insoluble in water and alkali.
Type β is bright yellow to orange, square system, relative density 8.55, melting point 860℃, soluble in acid, insoluble in water. It is easy to be reduced to metal bismuth by hydrogen and hydrocarbons.
δ-Bi2O3 is a special material with cubic fluorite structure, and there is a vacancy of oxygen ion in the lattice, so it has very high oxygen ion conductivity.
Bismuth oxide is mainly used in electronic ceramic powder materials, electrolyte materials, optoelectronic materials, high temperature superconducting materials and catalysts. Bismuth oxide is an important additive in electronic ceramic powder materials, with a purity of more than 99.15%. It is mainly used in zinc oxide varistors, ceramic capacitors and ferrite magnetic materials.
What is Bismuth Oxide Bi2O3 Used For?
Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) is an important metal oxide semiconductor, which has attracted wide attention because of its excellent optical and electrical properties, such as wide band gap, high refractive index, high permittivity and good photoconductivity.
Because of these unique properties, bismuth oxide has been studied and used in a variety of fields, such as fuel cells, sensor technology, oxide varistors, ionic conductors, optoelectronic materials, high temperature superconductors and functional ceramics. It is also an important part of manufacturing transparent ceramic glass, optical coatings, ceramics and catalysts. Similarly, the industrial field based on Bi2O3 manufacturing technology has made great progress due to the production of various high-quality optical fibers, such as erbium-doped (Er) bismuth oxide fiber and highly nonlinear bismuth oxide fiber.
Bi2O3 fiber is attractive because its nonlinearity is about 200 times higher than that of SiO2. These nonlinear phenomena play a key role in ultrafast optical transmission systems and all-optical transmission networks, so they can be studied for all-optical processing subsystems, such as regenerators, demultiplexers, logic gates and optical switches. Semiconductors made from Bi2O3 have the advantages of compactness and integration, even though they usually require temperature and current control and they are dynamically limited by charge carriers (hundreds of picoseconds).
Is Bismuth Oxide Acidic or Basic?
Pure Bi2O3 has both acidic and alkaline sites, much like TiO2, SnO2 and Fe2O3, and it is more alkaline than these oxides.
Supplier of Bismuth Oxide Bi2O3 Powder
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Greece will hand over Iranian oil it intercepted from a Russian-flagged tanker to the United States at the request of the U.S. Justice Department, Greek port police said recently, AFP reported. The decision angered Tehran.
In April, Greek authorities reportedly seized a Russian oil tanker, the Pegas, which was said to be heading to the Turkish port of Marmara.
Reports say the ship was docked in Calistos Bay with a crew of several people said to be Russian. The Greek coast guard said the ship had been renamed the Lana.
The report notes that the European Union imposed sanctions on Russia after the conflict broke out in February. Greek authorities seized the tanker in accordance with European Union sanctions.
According to information at the time, the tanker was carrying 115,000 tons of Iranian oil.
Iran's Ports and Maritime Organization strongly protested Greece's decision, calling it an "international bandit." "The Islamic Republic of Iran will not give up its legitimate rights and expects the Greek government to abide by its international obligations in the area of navigation and shipping," it said in a statement on its website.
Iran's Foreign Ministry, through the International Maritime Organization, called on the Greek government to release the tanker and its crew overnight, adding that "the Americans discharged their cargo," the report said.
Athens did not immediately respond to the Iranian protest and gave no further details about the oil on board or how it was handed over to the United States, the report said.
The Bi2O3 powder price is expected to increase in the next few days affected by the change in supply and demand markets.
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